Typical Writing Mistakes of Japanese learners of English PART II by Dr. Sonia Sharmin
9. Mixing up Singular and Plural: Incorrect: No Excuse! Correct: No Excuses!
10. Lack of Imperative: “You will...” sounds like a prediction to native English speakers, which is quite different from an imperative. Incorrect: “You will do homework tonight.” Correct: “Do your homework tonight.
11. Adjectives and Plurals: Adjective doubling is rare in English and has a different meaning (emphasis). Incorrect: “... different different color...” Correct: different colors
12. Using a wrong preposition: Very often, incorrect prepositions are used after some specific words. Here are some particular words that create problems: i) Absorb Incorrect: The man was absorbed at his work. Correct: The man was absorbed in his work. ii) Accustom Incorrect: I am accustomed with cold weather. Correct: I am accustomed to cold weather. iii) Aim Incorrect: He aimed on (or against) the bird. Correct: He aimed at the bird. [Note: The preposition ‘at’ always indicates path of something. E.g. ‘throw at’, ‘shout at’, ‘fire at’, ‘shoot at’.]
13. Misuse of the infinitive: There are some particular cases where ‘gerund’ should be used instead of an ‘infinitive’: a) After ‘preposition’ or ‘prepositional phrase’: i) Without + ing Incorrect: Do your work without to speak. Correct: Do your work without speaking. ii) Instead of + ing Incorrect: He went away instead to wait. Correct: He went away instead of waiting. b) After words which are normally followed by a preposition: i) Capable of + ing Incorrect: He is quite capable to do that. Correct: He is quite capable of doing that. ii) Insist on + ing Incorrect: He insisted to go to London. Correct: He insisted on going to London.
14. Use of wrong tense Some mistakes are made by using ‘past tense’ instead of ‘present infinitive’ after ‘did’: a) To ask questions: Incorrect: Did you went to school yesterday? Correct: Did you go to school yesterday? b) To make negative: Incorrect: I did not went to school yesterday. Correct: I did not go to school yesterday.
15. Possessive forms: These should not be used for objects. Incorrect: His room’s window is open. Correct: The window of his room is open.
16. Pronoun after ‘to be’ verb: This must be in the nominative case’, not in the ‘objective case: Incorrect: It was him. Correct: It was he.
Typical Writing Mistakes of Japanese learners of English PART I by Dr. Sonia Sharmin
Making mistakes is an integral part of foreign language learning. However, some errors seem to possess a relation with the students' mother tongue. Here, from my experience as a proofreader and editor of scientific research articles as well as a teacher of academic English at the tertiary level in Japan, I have tried to point out the most typical mistakes in the writing of English language learners whose native tongue is Japanese.
1. Missing articles: The Japanese language lacks plurals in the normal English sense and the nouns are not preceded by articles either. However, singular nouns are almost always needed in English. Incorrect: Write few lines. Correct: Write a few lines
2. Word order in Questions: The word order in interrogative sentences is stricter in English than in Japanese. Just adding a question word is not sufficient - you must also invert the subject and the verb. Incorrect: Why you are not doing anything? Correct: Why are you not doing anything?
3. Omission of Words: While sometimes possible, omission of pronouns or other words understood from the context is much less common in English than in Japanese. Incorrect: Finish? Correct: Have you finished?
4. Omission of Prepositions: Some mistakes are made by omitting prepositions after some specific words. Incorrect: She explained me the matter. Correct: She explained the matter to me.
5. Tag Questions: Unlike Japanese, English has no fixed phrase which can be tagged on to the end of a sentence to convert it into a question. Incorrect: You speak good English, isn't it? Correct: You speak good English, don't you?
6. Superfluous Words: It is very unusual in English to include extra words like in 'orange color book' or 'big size car'. Instead, it should be written as ' orange book' and 'big car' respectively.
7. Confusion of ‘gender’: Mixing up 'he' and 'she' may seem like a small point, but it is irritating to English speakers and is a source of confusion. Also, for objects, the pronoun should be 'it'. Incorrect: The door is open; please shut her. Correct: The door is open; please shut it. If for some reason, an abstract thing is expressed as a person, it will take a masculine/feminine pronoun: e.g. Time has his work to do.
8. Third person singular tense: i) Some mistakes are made by using ‘third person singular’ instead of ‘present infinitive’ after ‘does’: a) To ask questions: Incorrect: Does the gardener waters the flowers? Correct: Does the gardener water the flowers? b) To make negative: Incorrect: The man does not waters the flowers. Correct: The man does not water the flowers. ii) Some mistakes are made by using ‘third person singular’ instead of ‘present infinitive’ after ‘modal auxiliaries’(can, must, may, shall, will etc.): Incorrect: He can speaks English very well. Correct: He can speak English very well.
To be continued...
オープンアクセス を実現する方法論として、グリーンオープンアクセス とゴールドオープンアクセス にわけて呼称されることが一般的です。
グリーンは、著者が自身の HP や所属する学術・研究機関のリポジトリなどで論文のアクセプト原稿を公開することでオープンアクセスを実現する方法で、いわゆるセルフアーカイブといわれる方法です。
NEW 2017/4/01 Editor:C.F
Making your poster stand out: the role of design
When preparing a poster several design aspects can help it to attract attention.
Most importantly, the title and abstract should be highly visible, usually with the title center-aligned at the top of the poster and the abstract left-aligned below the title. It can also be useful to provide a condensed summary of the topic and key findings (3–5 bullet points).
High contrast between the text and background is essential (i.e., black text on a light background or white text on a dark background). The color scheme also needs to work with any figures or photographs. Remember that colors can look significantly lighter or darker on a computer monitor vs. a printed poster.
If your research group will present multiple posters, consider using a standardized design. This can be effective when posters from the same group are assigned to adjacent poster boards, and it helps attendees to remember your department.
A standardized design can be achieved by creating a poster template (PowerPoint: Save As → Save as Type → Poster Template). Alternatively, colors can be standardized between posters by copying their RGB and transparency values (PowerPoint: Color Selection Tool → More Colors → Custom).
The most effective and professional designs tend to use a small number of colors (around 3–4 in total) and allow some empty space between different elements on the poster.
I hope these tips will help you to design your research posters in the future.
Should a researcher be lucky enough to have an abstract accepted at a conference, there are several important aspects to remember when designing the presentation.
This applies to both poster and oral presentations.
Although tempting, try not to cram too much information into the presentation; you are providing a snapshot of the context, methods, results, interpretation and conclusions.
For any presentation, one should consider ‘why’ the research is being performed – is there a clinical need for the study? What does the research add to the evidence base? Be realistic in what your study shows because even incremental steps in knowledge have the potential for publication.
Although often considered routine, it is incredibly important to clearly present the methods e.g. was this a multi-centre approach, did it include a large sample of individuals, was there a suitable period of follow-up?
These are questions the research should consider.
Then, when it comes to presenting the results, it is best to only include those that are statistically significant and that are directly linked to the research question.
Finally, don’t be tempted to over-interpret the findings but do compare data to studies performed by others, whether it conflicts or agrees. A final conclusion slide leaves the audience with the take-home message and the implications of the research. At this point, the audience should be ready to ask questions about your exciting research.
Tips for a good poster presentation
It is daunting to present your work, especially when using a second language. To help, here are some tips for a poster presentation:
Blocks of text on posters can be quite difficult to read, particularly when a small font size is used. Try using graphs, charts, diagrams, tables, photographs, and bullet points instead of text. A saying in English is “A picture is worth a thousand words”. This is especially true for posters that will be presented in crowded spaces where people may struggle to get close.
When the use of text is unavoidable, ensure it is large enough to read easily. To assess the sizing of text, it is useful to set up the page layout in PowerPoint to the exact dimensions of the printed poster. Then, with the zoom setting at 100%, the text will appear at the same size on the computer screen as in print.
Conversations at poster sessions can lead to interesting collaborations. When someone reads your poster, try saying “Hello, can I help you with any questions?” or when looking at another poster, try saying “This is very interesting work - how will you develop it in the future?”.
I hope these tips will help you to present your work effectively at poster sessions.
NEW 2017: 代表取締役 伊藤秀司
5 Tips for Improving the Style of Your Paper
Writing a paper in another language is tremendous challenge and I continue to be impressed how well our authors succeed at this difficult task. My experience after more than ten years of editing NAI papers is that authors need help in two areas. The first is in correcting grammar, and it is important to get this right. The second is in rewording sentences to make the text flow in a logical and easy-to-read way. The better style a paper has, the more likely reviewers and editors will be impressed. Here are five tips on improving style based on my experience.
1. Try not to overuse key phrases, especially in the same sentence. If your paper is about “gel permeation chromatography of polymers from oak tree bark”, don’t keep repeating this phrase as it is tiring for the reader. Use shorter forms or simple substitutes like “it”, “this” etc.
2. Avoid very long sentences – two shorter sentences are better than one very long one.
3. When referring to figures and tables use the present tense – “the fit is shown in Fig 1”, not “the fit was shown in Fig 1” – as the reader is in the process of reading in the present.
4. Avoid a “hanging phrase” at the end of sentences by moving it to the front. For instance “The results were ……… , as shown by FTIR”, is much better written as “FTIR showed that …….”. Also, “… , respectively” is easily overused and is usually not needed.
5. Resist the temptation to write separate sentences like “The above results show that we succeeded in achieving our goal.”. If the statement is true, the reader will have already realized it. If you really want to make this sort of statement, include it in a sentence explaining the result – “the presence of a signal at xxx confirmed that we had isolated yyy”.
The topic of this month’s column is typical errors in texts written by Japanese authors.
Rather than simply point these out, however, it might be useful to explore one of the most common errors by far – namely, the use of articles (‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’).
It may help to know that articles are actually a type of adjective; in other words, they describe a noun. Even more useful is knowing that they belong to a group of adjectives called ‘determiners’, which also include the words ‘my’, ‘his’, ‘your’, ‘their’, etc.
Each of these words ‘determines’ the importance of the noun that they describe. Regarding the articles ‘a’ and ‘the’, ‘a’ is applied to nonspecific nouns or nouns that are one of many (e.g. “I picked a colony from the plate”), while ‘the’ is applied to specific nouns (e.g. “I picked the biggest colony from the plate”).
In other words, ‘the’ singles out a specific noun in a sentence, giving that noun more emphasis and importance. A further error often arises in the use (or rather overuse) of ‘the’. In a paper about the BRCA1 gene, for example, it is correct to use ‘the’ whenever the word ‘gene’ is used. It is equally correct to use the gene name alone, BRCA1, as a proper noun. Frequently, however, Japanese authors will incorrectly write ‘the BRCA1’. This is analogous to placing ‘the’ in front of a person’s name or city. In short, you wouldn’t say “I’m going to the Tokyo” or write an e-mail to “Dear the Dr L.E.”! Hopefully this short piece has shed some light on the use of articles in English; of course, NAI is always there is help out if you are stuck!
2016/09/1 NAI Coordinator
2016/08/1 Editor KH
Science writing has a long and proud tradition, but is arguably more important now than ever before due to the exponential increase in both information and misinformation. Science enables a distinction to be made between truths and untruths. Good science writing underpins the very basis of science itself by allowing the creation of a structured and stable archive of man’s endeavours whilst also providing the central plank of the scientific method, peer review. Published papers must be written in such a way that a fellow scientist could repeat your experiment. Colleagues from within your field may also wish to take advantage of your techniques and will also appreciate clarity.
Thus high quality, clear, accurate and engaging science writing is vital. Personally I find that writing my paper’s findings in one sentence and then expanding that into key bullet points enables me to construct a focussed, clear, crisp first draft that I can then flesh out with relevant detail where necessary.
Here are a few tips for Japanese authors assimilated over ten years of editing your excellent manuscripts.
1. The most common mistake made by Japanese authors is the use of the word ‘the’. My understanding is that there is no clear translation of this word. What is clear is that its use in English and Japanese is very different. I have no obvious answers to this problem other than practise and experience.
2. Another common trait is the listing of numerical results and the parameters to which they correspond followed by the word ‘respectively’. For example; the results were 40.5 ml, 56.7ml and 89.4ml for Stage 1, Stage 2 and Stage 3 respectively. It would be easier for a reader to understand if it was written; the result for Stage 1 was 40.5ml, for Stage 2 was 56.7ml and for Stage 3 was 89.4ml.
3. There is also a tendency for Japanese authors to use long sentences. Attention spans are reducing and thus shorter, simpler sentences are preferred by readers.
4. Another common error is the confusion between ‘r’ and ‘l’. This is intriguing for a Westerner since this error also often occurs when using the spoken word.
Despite these common errors, science papers written by Japanese authors are some of the best I have read. They invariably contain large amounts of well-presented data and well-reasoned and valid conclusions.
I hope these tips are of use to you as an author and look forward to the opportunity of editing your valuable research in the future.
2016/07/01 EDITOR J.F
There are several goals common to both writing and editing that need be addressed to create an effective manuscript.
An important goal of both the author and editor is clarity. All parts of a manuscript require effort to present a clear voice as to the aims of the study, the methods employed to achieve those aims, the results obtained, the interpretation of those results, and the impact of the findings in the field.
The author should be diligent of lapses in clarity, while the editor should identify instances of unclear text or logic.
A good editor is able to offer suggestions to improve clarity, while maintaining consistency with the author’s intentions. A second goal of both the author and editor is to establish text that provides a consistent flow between the aims of a study and the conclusions presented.
Authors may be tempted to over-reach in conclusions based of insufficient data. This over-reach may be hidden in terms such as “data not shown” or “as described previously”. These terms are valid additions to a manuscript, but must be justified in their usage.
An editor should insist that these terms are used appropriately, and that the data referred to is applied correctly. Of course, this can be an impossible task for editors not intimate with the particular field, and may require discussion with the author. A third goal of both the author and the editor is to generate a manuscript that is suitable for publication and acceptable by journal reviewers. While the two goals discussed above are consistent with this final goal, creating an acceptable manuscript requires due diligence to comply with the journal instructions. This task may seem trivial, however, non-compliance with simple journal instructions can delay publication or even cause manuscript rejection. All of these goals can be met using good communication between the editor and the author that is mediated by the competent staff of NAI.
2016/05/06 EDITOR G.P
Writing a good abstract First ?
read the instructions to authors!
This may sound obvious, but…..Abstracts for both papers and conferences may differ quite markedly in style and length and must be constructed according to the instructions.
Having said that, all Abstracts should include four parts: introduction, methods, results and conclusions.
These must be labelled as such if the instructions require a structured Abstract, as is sometimes the case, but it is a good idea to present the Abstract in this manner even if this is not formally required.
The introduction, or background, should provide a brief description of the context for the work to be presented, followed by the research question posed and investigated, or the rationale for the study or trial.
The methods should describe how the work was done and the results should clearly state the outcome, the level of detail depending on the space available and the nature of the subject matter. Finally, there should be a concluding sentence which avoids repeating the results but provides an interpretation of the results and an indication of their importance.
Let us be clear ? a good abstract is never easy to write and requires very clearly describing what was done and why it was done, and why the reader should be interested in the full content of the paper or the presentation. Verbosity must be avoided at all costs, and language as clear and simple as possible should be used. Jargon should be avoided as far as possible and the use of unusual abbreviations minimized.
It goes without saying that the quality of the English language must be excellent, because if the Abstract is hard to understand for that reason, the paper will not be downloaded and read, or the conference presentation will be avoided. For this reason, NAI offers editing services which not only correct the English grammar, but also employs professional scientists to consider the content of the Abstract in the light of the content of the paper or presentation itself, and able to advise accordingly on how to improve the impact of the Abstract.
2016/05/02 NAI DESK
論文を書くのに慣れていない方が１度やっておきたいことの一つに、"One Synapsis." という練習があります。
それはA4 1ページにまず ① Claim/s ② Findings that support the claim/s ③ Conclusion ④ Any future prospects or visions ⑤ Any specific instructions (e.g. word count limit)をまとめられるか確認してみましょう。
2016/04/01 EDITOR J.F
As an editor and long-time colleague of scientists and physicians whose first language is not English, I understand the challenges of presenting the results of months or years of work in a second language. My responsibility is to make sure that those research activities are accurately reported in clear and easy to read English. I regard the authors of those reports as my partners. As editor it is my job to learn from the text exactly what is the research question, what are the results, and, finally, what those results mean in answering the research question. This often involves asking questions regarding certain sections or even just words. My partners, the authors, are encouraged to explain the meaning in as many words as it takes. With this information I can accurately and concisely edit those previously unclear sections. Finally, the knowledge that an author’s hard work has been presented in a way that will advance knowledge in a particular field is my reward.