校閲者・コーディネーターの月替わりのコラム(2017)

2017/12/06 Editor: M.R.

Scientific editing requires clarity, precision, and speed. Accordingly, as an editor, I aim to present a manuscript in a coherent manner while ensuring that the author’s original meaning and intended emphasis are retained. Simplicity and conciseness are the hallmarks of a well-written manuscript.
From an editor’s perspective, meeting the above-mentioned requirements involves leveraging his/her expertise to ensure that a manuscript is technically sound while conforming to international standards of publication in terms of content and language. Moreover, absolute commitment to client satisfaction and deadline adherence is of paramount importance.

Japan is a global leader in cutting-edge research. In my seven years of experience as a scientific editor, I have found that article usage (a, an, the) and subject-verb agreement (singular verbs for singular subjects and plural verbs for plural subjects) are the primary focus areas for Japanese authors in terms of improving their written English.

【訳文】
技術文の編集には明確さ、正確さ、スピードが必要です。従って編集者として私は、作者が本来意図したことと強調したいことは変えないようにして、一貫した方法で原稿を仕上げることを目標にしています。よく書けている原稿の特徴は単純で簡潔なことです。編集者の立場から言えば、そのような要求を満たすためには、自分の専門を生かしてコンテンツと言語に関しては刊行物の国際基準に準拠させる一方、原稿を技術的にしっかりさせることが必要です。

日本は先端技術の研究では世界のリーダーです。私は7年間科学技術分野の編集者をしてきた経験から、冠詞(a,an,the)の使用法と主語と動詞を一致させること(主語が単数なら動詞は単数形になり、主語が複数なら動詞は複数形になること)が日本人が作成した英文をブラッシュアップする上での一番注意しなければならないことではないかと思います。

2017/11/01 P.K.

How to deliver an excellent oral presentation; some do’s and don’ts

The first rule is that your talk should never over-run its allotted time. The Chair of the session will most likely have to keep everyone to time. If you over-run, it is disrespectful to both the Chair and your fellow speakers.

Secondly, less is more. On the slides, do not have bullet points exceeding 10 words ? the message should be short and it is for you to expand upon these points, not simply read them verbatim.

Thirdly, ensure that the figures/data in your slide are legible and that the font is sufficiently large that those at the back of the audience can see the data.

Your presentation should have a coherent theme that adheres to the title of the talk. It is often easy to get side-tracked if you have lots of good data but sticking to the main message is key so that the audience is with you from beginning to end. To that end, your title of talk should be concise, with study methodology included, if possible. An example could be “Impact of the H1N1 vaccine on acute respiratory illness: a population-based analysis”.

Finally, it is very important in your acknowledgements to recognise the team effort that may have gone into generation of data and the reason why you are standing there. You are the recognised expert but the team should be officially recognised for its efforts.

2017/10/03

Author beware: The rise and spread of “predatory journals”

In recent years, a growing phenomenon termed “predatory journals” has presented a threat to the integrity of scientific publishing. This article describes this problem and presents advice about how to recognize legitimate journals.

Thousands of journals publish scientific articles. Most of these journals offer important services, chiefly the expert peer review of articles and the scrutiny of submissions by an experienced editor. Many journals have long histories and good reputations.

However, the development of the internet has enabled various fraudulent activities, and the academic sphere has not been immune from this trend. Opportunists have established numerous online-only, open-access journals that exist only to extract publication fees from authors. These predatory journals do not offer rigorous peer review or editorial oversight, and they publish almost any articles that are submitted, regardless of the quality of the research.

Having an awareness of this problem is essential, because predatory journals are rarely indexed on the PubMed search engine and have non-existent impact factors. Thus, if your research is published in such a journal, other scientists may not be able to read it, and predatory journals have a poor reputation, so it is advisable to avoid being associated with them.

The table below provides some guidance on how to differentiate between legitimate journals and predatory ones.

Further reading:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845443/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predatory_open_access_publishing
https://predatoryjournals.com/journals/

著者の皆様への警告:「ハゲタカ出版(ジャーナル)」の増加と蔓延

近年、「ハゲタカ出版(ジャーナル)」と呼ばれる現象が増大し、学術ジャーナルの確固とした公正さに対する脅威となっています。本稿ではこの問題について説明し、正統なジャーナルを認識する方法についてアドバイスをご提供いたします。

数千ものジャーナルが学術論文を発表しています。これらのジャーナルのほとんどは重要なサービス、主なものとしては専門家による論文のピアレビューおよび経験豊富な編集部による投稿論文の査読を提供しています。多くのジャーナルは長い歴史と優れた評判を誇っています。

しかしながら、インターネットの発達により多様な不正行為が可能となり、学術界もこの傾向から無縁という訳にはいきませんでした。この傾向に便乗した者によって、著者から発表費用を搾り取るためだけに存在する多数のオンラインオンリー、オープンアクセスのジャーナルが立ち上げられています。これらのハゲタカジャーナルは、厳密なピアレビューも編集部による監視も提供せず、投稿された論文は、研究の質にかかわらず、ほとんどすべてが発表されます。

まずこういった問題があることの認識が不可欠であり、これらのハゲタカジャーナルはPubMed検索エンジンでインデックスされることはほとんどなく、インパクトファクターも無いに等しいものです。このため、自分の研究がこのようなジャーナルで発表されたとしても、他の研究者はこれを読むことができない可能性があり、またハゲタカジャーナルは評判が悪いので、これらとは関係を持たないことが一番でしょう。

以下の表で、正統なジャーナルとハゲタカジャーナルを区別する方法についていくつかのガイダンスを示しています。

詳細な情報は以下をご参考にしてください:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845443/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predatory_open_access_publishing
https://predatoryjournals.com/journals/

2017/09/04 NAI コーディネーター

= What makes an article a good article? =

What makes an article a good article?
Of course the content matters…but to begin with, what triggers one to read it??

As mentioned so many times, an attractive title with a clear message that explains its academic value. Straightforward abstract with a good closing sentence makes the article worthwhile to read.

And most important point of all, a well organized text ? Introduction, M&M, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions in clear and simple English. (Although this depends on the journal and the specific journal instructions)

The Introduction should include the following points:
1) What’s known
2) What is not known
3) Problem ? Issues
3’) Approach taken in your paper (whether in the clinical or experimental setting)

Materials and Methods (M&M) & Results:
M&M should have clear and straightforward descriptions of the experimental details sufficient to allow reproduction by other investigators (make sure to provide full information on the equipment and reagents used, etc.)
Straightforward description of the results with clearly presented tables and/or figures that display the data or details of the study graphically.
Avoid feeling the need to write long and redundant results, if tables and figures are clear enough. Take extra care in not introducing redundancies throughout by repeating the same sentences multiple times.

Then, once more, question the following:
Is the article presented with a clear theme?
What are the main results of and importance of the new findings? Mention these at the closing of the Conclusions.
Is the organization of the article in good order?
Is the text written in clear and simple English with abbreviations and acronyms used in appropriate ways?
When all of the above has been accomplished, you are ready for careful proofreading.

2017/08/08 Checker-NEW

Typical Writing Mistakes of Japanese learners of English PART II by Dr. Sonia Sharmin

9. Mixing up Singular and Plural:
Incorrect: No Excuse!
Correct: No Excuses!

10. Lack of Imperative: “You will...” sounds like a prediction to native English speakers, which is quite different from an imperative.
Incorrect: “You will do homework tonight.”
Correct: “Do your homework tonight.

11. Adjectives and Plurals: Adjective doubling is rare in English and has a different meaning (emphasis).
Incorrect: “... different different color...”
Correct: different colors

12. Using a wrong preposition: Very often, incorrect prepositions are used after some specific words. Here are some particular words that create problems:
i) Absorb
Incorrect: The man was absorbed at his work.
Correct: The man was absorbed in his work.
ii) Accustom
Incorrect: I am accustomed with cold weather.
Correct: I am accustomed to cold weather.
iii) Aim
Incorrect: He aimed on (or against) the bird.
Correct: He aimed at the bird.
[Note: The preposition ‘at’ always indicates path of something.
E.g. ‘throw at’, ‘shout at’, ‘fire at’, ‘shoot at’.]

13. Misuse of the infinitive: There are some particular cases where ‘gerund’ should be used instead of an ‘infinitive’:
a) After ‘preposition’ or ‘prepositional phrase’:
i) Without + ing
Incorrect: Do your work without to speak.
Correct: Do your work without speaking.
ii) Instead of + ing
Incorrect: He went away instead to wait.
Correct: He went away instead of waiting.
b) After words which are normally followed by a preposition:
i) Capable of + ing
Incorrect: He is quite capable to do that.
Correct: He is quite capable of doing that.
ii) Insist on + ing
Incorrect: He insisted to go to London.
Correct: He insisted on going to London.

14. Use of wrong tense Some mistakes are made by using ‘past tense’ instead of ‘present infinitive’ after ‘did’:
a) To ask questions:
Incorrect: Did you went to school yesterday?
Correct: Did you go to school yesterday?
b) To make negative:
Incorrect: I did not went to school yesterday.
Correct: I did not go to school yesterday.

15. Possessive forms: These should not be used for objects.
Incorrect: His room’s window is open.
Correct: The window of his room is open.

16. Pronoun after ‘to be’ verb: This must be in the nominative case’, not in the ‘objective case:
Incorrect: It was him.
Correct: It was he.

2017/07/03 Checker

Typical Writing Mistakes of Japanese learners of English PART I by Dr. Sonia Sharmin

Making mistakes is an integral part of foreign language learning. However, some errors seem to possess a relation with the students' mother tongue. Here, from my experience as a proofreader and editor of scientific research articles as well as a teacher of academic English at the tertiary level in Japan, I have tried to point out the most typical mistakes in the writing of English language learners whose native tongue is Japanese.

1. Missing articles: The Japanese language lacks plurals in the normal English sense and the nouns are not preceded by articles either. However, singular nouns are almost always needed in English.
Incorrect: Write few lines.
Correct: Write a few lines

2. Word order in Questions: The word order in interrogative sentences is stricter in English than in Japanese. Just adding a question word is not sufficient - you must also invert the subject and the verb.
Incorrect: Why you are not doing anything?
Correct: Why are you not doing anything?

3. Omission of Words: While sometimes possible, omission of pronouns or other words understood from the context is much less common in English than in Japanese.
Incorrect: Finish?
Correct: Have you finished?

4. Omission of Prepositions: Some mistakes are made by omitting prepositions after some specific words.
Incorrect: She explained me the matter.
Correct: She explained the matter to me.

5. Tag Questions: Unlike Japanese, English has no fixed phrase which can be tagged on to the end of a sentence to convert it into a question.
Incorrect: You speak good English, isn't it?
Correct: You speak good English, don't you?

6. Superfluous Words: It is very unusual in English to include extra words like in 'orange color book' or 'big size car'. Instead, it should be written as ' orange book' and 'big car' respectively.

7. Confusion of ‘gender’: Mixing up 'he' and 'she' may seem like a small point, but it is irritating to English speakers and is a source of confusion. Also, for objects, the pronoun should be 'it'.
Incorrect: The door is open; please shut her.
Correct: The door is open; please shut it.
If for some reason, an abstract thing is expressed as a person, it will take a masculine/feminine pronoun: e.g. Time has his work to do.

8. Third person singular tense:
i) Some mistakes are made by using ‘third person singular’ instead of ‘present infinitive’ after ‘does’:
a) To ask questions:
Incorrect: Does the gardener waters the flowers?
Correct: Does the gardener water the flowers?
b) To make negative:
Incorrect: The man does not waters the flowers.
Correct: The man does not water the flowers.
ii) Some mistakes are made by using ‘third person singular’ instead of ‘present infinitive’ after ‘modal auxiliaries’(can, must, may, shall, will etc.):
Incorrect: He can speaks English very well.
Correct: He can speak English very well.

To be continued...

2017/06/01

4月に入社致しました、コーディネーターの野元と申します。
毎日、お客様の原稿や依頼に最適な校閲者・翻訳者を手配できるよう、日々精進しております。まだ仕事を始めてわずかですが、一日も早く皆さんのお役に立てるよう頑張っていく所存です。

ご存知の方も多いと思いますが、NAI論文部門では、論文だけでなく、カバーレターやレスポンスレターの校閲・作成も行っています。スペルや略語の書き出しの間違いといった基本的なミスがあると、せっかくの論文が不採用となってしまう場合もあります。そのためにも校閲や翻訳のプロフェッショナルにチェックを依頼する意味は大きいと思います。

校閲者や翻訳者を私自身の判断だけで選定するまでにはまだまだ遠い道のりですが、先輩方に指導を頂き、必ず皆様に喜んで頂けるようなコーディネーターを目指したいと考えています。今後ともどうぞよろしくお願い致します。

2017/05/10 Translator

オープンアクセスのゴールドとグリーン
北里大学北里研究所病院
炎症性腸疾患先進治療センター
小林拓医師

オープンアクセスは近年、学術情報流通において非常に重要なトピックとなりました。
オープンアクセスの一般的な定義は、「学術論文に誰もが制限なく無料でアクセスできること」とされています。
すなわち、オープンアクセスがトピックとなっているのは、学術情報が幅広く閲覧され、利用されることの重要性に対する社会の認識の高まりに他ありません。
オープンアクセス を実現する方法論として、グリーンオープンアクセス とゴールドオープンアクセス にわけて呼称されることが一般的です。

グリーンは、著者が自身の HP や所属する学術・研究機関のリポジトリなどで論文のアクセプト原稿を公開することでオープンアクセスを実現する方法で、いわゆるセルフアーカイブといわれる方法です。
ゴールドは、オープンアクセスジャーナルで論文を出版するという方法をさします。
近年では、特に医学・生物学系の領域で、オープンアクセスジャーナルの新設が相次ぎ、ゴールドの占める比率が急上昇しているのが特徴です。

NEW 2017/4/01 Editor:C.F

Making your poster stand out: the role of design
When preparing a poster several design aspects can help it to attract attention.

Most importantly, the title and abstract should be highly visible, usually with the title center-aligned at the top of the poster and the abstract left-aligned below the title. It can also be useful to provide a condensed summary of the topic and key findings (3?5 bullet points).

High contrast between the text and background is essential (i.e., black text on a light background or white text on a dark background). The color scheme also needs to work with any figures or photographs. Remember that colors can look significantly lighter or darker on a computer monitor vs. a printed poster.

If your research group will present multiple posters, consider using a standardized design. This can be effective when posters from the same group are assigned to adjacent poster boards, and it helps attendees to remember your department.

A standardized design can be achieved by creating a poster template (PowerPoint: Save As → Save as Type → Poster Template). Alternatively, colors can be standardized between posters by copying their RGB and transparency values (PowerPoint: Color Selection Tool → More Colors → Custom).

The most effective and professional designs tend to use a small number of colors (around 3?4 in total) and allow some empty space between different elements on the poster.

I hope these tips will help you to design your research posters in the future.

2017/3/01 Editor:K.P

Should a researcher be lucky enough to have an abstract accepted at a conference, there are several important aspects to remember when designing the presentation.

This applies to both poster and oral presentations.

Although tempting, try not to cram too much information into the presentation; you are providing a snapshot of the context, methods, results, interpretation and conclusions.

For any presentation, one should consider ‘why’ the research is being performed ? is there a clinical need for the study? What does the research add to the evidence base? Be realistic in what your study shows because even incremental steps in knowledge have the potential for publication.

Although often considered routine, it is incredibly important to clearly present the methods e.g. was this a multi-centre approach, did it include a large sample of individuals, was there a suitable period of follow-up?

These are questions the research should consider.

Then, when it comes to presenting the results, it is best to only include those that are statistically significant and that are directly linked to the research question.

Finally, don’t be tempted to over-interpret the findings but do compare data to studies performed by others, whether it conflicts or agrees. A final conclusion slide leaves the audience with the take-home message and the implications of the research. At this point, the audience should be ready to ask questions about your exciting research.

2017/2/01 Editor:C.F

Tips for a good poster presentation

It is daunting to present your work, especially when using a second language. To help, here are some tips for a poster presentation:
Blocks of text on posters can be quite difficult to read, particularly when a small font size is used. Try using graphs, charts, diagrams, tables, photographs, and bullet points instead of text. A saying in English is “A picture is worth a thousand words”. This is especially true for posters that will be presented in crowded spaces where people may struggle to get close.

When the use of text is unavoidable, ensure it is large enough to read easily. To assess the sizing of text, it is useful to set up the page layout in PowerPoint to the exact dimensions of the printed poster. Then, with the zoom setting at 100%, the text will appear at the same size on the computer screen as in print.

Conversations at poster sessions can lead to interesting collaborations. When someone reads your poster, try saying “Hello, can I help you with any questions?” or when looking at another poster, try saying “This is very interesting work - how will you develop it in the future?”.

I hope these tips will help you to present your work effectively at poster sessions.

NEW 2017: 代表取締役 伊藤秀司

いつも弊社の論文サポートサービスをご愛顧いただき誠にありがとうございます。
また2017年の年初を迎え、本年も引き続き弊社サービスをご愛顧いただけますようよろしくお願いいたします。

今年の当社は『お客様が真に求めている”REQUIRED SERVICE”のご提供』を方針に掲げております。

時代は大きく動こうとしています。特に日本を取り巻く環境は、大きな変化を遂げようとしています。
その変化の根底に流れているのが少子化による人口減少です。弊社の新サービス、外国語の動画作成サービスにおいても、外国人労働者向けの安全マニュアルや現場マニュアル等の動画制作の必要性が高まってきております。この背景には、現行の出生率が続く限りにおいて、あと20年もすると、この国から労働の担い手、税負担の担い手となるべき労働力人口が激減するという厳然たる事実が存在しています。その不足部分を外国人で補おうという方針です。もはや2年とか3年とかの短期間の外国人労働者で補える数値ではありません。

たとえ外国人であっても、日本に永住して、子供を育てて、子供にきちんとした教育を受けさせて…、そうしたことが可能にならないと日本は世界から取り残されていきます。我々の子供達の上司はベトナムからの移民の2世になる。こんなことが当たり前に起こる時代は目の前です。
ということは、この先は単一民族日本として生きていくことができなくなる日が訪れることを意味しています。そこでは従来の日本的な常識が非常識になる日が訪れるということです。

私たち日本人が、この先歩んでいく道は、今まで先人の日本人の誰も歩いたことのない険しい道です。そうした未踏の道を切り開きながら、ゴールの見えない未来に向かって、我々は前に前にと歩んでいかなければなりません。
こうした環境下、私たちサービスベンダーには、常に自らを変えていき、常にお客様が真に必要不可欠とするサービスをご提供し続けなければならない義務があります。その義務を履行し続けることは決して容易なことではありません。しかしながら我々NAIは、この変化への追求を行っていきます。

皆様も、是非ご遠慮なく、「こんなサービスを提供してくれたら嬉しいのに」といったお声をお聞かせください。NAIは可能な限り全力で、お客様のニーズにお応えしていきます。
そして、おそらく試行錯誤を繰り返しながら、七転八倒しながらになるでしょうが、NAIはこの先も、大切なお客様に対して、様々な『新たな利便性』や、『お客様の驚きと納得のご満足』をお届けしていきます。お客様に併せて、変化と進化をしていきます。そしてそのひとつひとつが、お客様お一人お一人にとりまして、心の底から湧き出る『助かりました』に繋がるように、スタッフ一同、努力を惜しまない所存です。

繰り返しにはなりますが、本年も引き続き、変わらぬご愛顧、より一層のご愛顧を賜りますよう、
何卒、よろしくお願い申し上げます。

平成29年1月5日
エヌ・エイ・アイ株式会社
代表取締役 伊藤秀司

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