校閲者・コーディネーターの月替わりのコラム(2019)

2019.3.5 Editor: G.S.

Similarities and differences between scientific abstracts for journals and conferences: An example

In last month’s column, we mentioned that abstracts aimed for journal publications tend to be more detailed, whereas those intended for meetings (i.e., posters) are more concise and contain simpler language. Below we provide an example to illustrate differences between the two types of abstracts:

Introduction

Journal:The expression of the X gene has been implicated in the development of resistance in leukemia. Studies on hepatoma cell lines have shown that activation of the X gene involves the transcription factors TF1 and TF2. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevance of this model in leukemia.

Meeting:The X gene is implicated in the development of resistance in leukemia. We investigated the role of transcription factors TF1 and TF2 in the activation of the X gene in leukemic cell lines.

Methodology

Journal:Human leukemic cell lines (LE1 and LE2) were subjected to deprivation conditions mimicking the effects of treatment for 12 hours. The treatment included growth in medium lacking the nutrients A and B. Subsequently, we determined the mRNA and protein levels of TF1 and TF2 using real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting.

Meeting:LE1 and LE2 cells were cultured in medium for 12 hours under nutritional deprivation (i.e., lacking A and B). Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of TF1 and TF2.

Results

Journal:After 12 hours of nutritional deprivation, LE1 cells exhibited only minor increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factors TF1 and TF2 compared with baseline. Similarly, in LE2 cells, the observed increases in the mRNA and protein levels of TF1 and TF2 after 12 hours of nutritional deprivation were not significant.

Meeting:In both cell lines, the mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factors TF1 and TF2 did not change significantly after 12 hours of nutritional deprivation.

Conclusions

Journal:This evidence suggests that TF1 and TF2 are not involved in the activation of the X gene in leukemia following nutritional deprivation. These results suggest the involvement of additional factors in the development of resistance in leukemia.

Meeting:TF1 and TF2 are not involved in the activation of the X gene in leukemia following nutritional deprivation. Additional factors may be involved in the development of resistance in leukemia.

2019.2.1 Editor: G.S.

Production of scientific abstracts for journals and conferences: Similarities and differences

The use of scientific abstracts is an effective tool for the communication of the latest developments in research. However, producing an attractive summary of our investigations can be a challenging task and influences the way our discoveries are received by the scientific community. The length, style, and format of abstracts varies depending on their purpose, i.e., accompanying the submission of articles to journals, introducing speeches at upcoming conferences, or supporting poster presentations. However, the common goal is to engage the attention of experts by conveying research findings in a clear and concise manner.

In general, abstracts of journal publications tend to be more detailed, mirroring the content included in the article. In contrast, abstracts intended for meetings contain simpler language, aiming to capture the interest of conference delegates who are able to attend only a limited number of sessions.

Basic guidelines for the production of abstracts:

・Introduction: State the objective of your study. If possible, include a background sentence to assist the reader in understanding the hypothesis.

・Methodology: Provide the study design and experimental approach. Avoid excessive detail (e.g., reagents, equipment, etc.).

・Results: Describe the most important findings. Be factual and provide precise data of measurements. If applicable, support these data with evidence of statistical analyses. However, avoid excessive detail ? especially in abstracts for meetings ? as this may dilute the focus of the abstract.

・Conclusions: Avoid repetition from previous sections. What should the reader remember after reading your abstract?

科学に関する学術誌と学会発表のアブストラクトの作成:類似と相違

科学論文のアブストラクトは、研究の最新成果を発表するための効果的なツールとして使用できます。しかし、自らの発見に関する魅力的な要約の作成は難しいタスクであり、科学コミュニティがこの発見をどのように受け取るかに影響を及ぼします。アブストラクトの長さやスタイル、フォーマットはその目的、すなわち学術誌への投稿に添えるのか、次回の学会発表の導入に使うのか、あるいはポスター発表の補助として用いるのかによって異なります。しかし、これらに共通する目的は、明瞭かつ簡潔に研究の知見を伝えることにより、専門家達の注意を惹き付けることです。

学術誌に発表するためのアブストラクトは、その雑誌に収録される内容を反映しながら、より詳細に記述されることが一般的です。対照的に、限られた数のセッションにしか参加できない会議に出席する代表者の興味を引くため、学会発表用のアブストラクトにはよりシンプルな言葉が使われます。

以下にアブストラクト作成のための基本的なガイドラインを記します。

・緒言:研究の目的について述べてください。読者が仮説を理解しやすいように、可能なら背景について説明する文章も加えてください。

・方法:研究デザインと実験方法を説明してください。詳しくなり過ぎないように注意が必要です(例えば試薬や装置など)。

・結果:最も重要な知見について記述しましょう。事実に即して測定の正確なデータを示してください。妥当な場合には、データを裏付ける統計解析の証拠も示してください。しかし、過剰な詳細は、特に学会発表用のアブストラクトでは避けましょう。アブストラクトの焦点がぼやけてしまうかもしれません。

・結論:既に述べた事項の反復は避けましょう。アブストラクトの読者が覚えておくべきことは何でしょうか?

2019.1.4 Editor: E.L.

Greetings and good wishes for a happy and productive 2019!

January is the time of year when we make resolutions and adopt fresh approaches to various areas of our life, including work. For scientists, our work involves not only experimentation, but also communication of the findings in a logical and clear format.

Like any good story, a scientific article should have a beginning, where the background work is concisely summarized and the aim or scope of the study is outlined; a middle, where the results of the experiments are clearly described; and an end, where the wider context and future directions of the work are discussed.

We learn these fundamental rules in school, and most of us apply them without even thinking. Nevertheless, this basic article structure is essential for any non-specialist readers who are interested in your work. So let’s make this January a time to revisit the principles of article writing and to communicate our scientific discoveries in an interesting and accessible way!

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