2019.12.02 Editor W.M.

Coming back for more: greetings from an editor

As we come towards the close of 2019, I have been looking back on my work with NAI as a freelance editor and am looking forward to further collaborations in the years to come. I thoroughly enjoy receiving manuscripts from clients, as this exposes me to a lot of novel primary research, which is really educational. Working closely with the NAI team to make sure we provide the client with high-quality edits on time is extremely rewarding. I feel part of the team due to our frequent email exchanges, which are always constructive and courteous. Recently, I was very pleased to find out that I am the preferred editor for several of our repeat clients. I am grateful to them for the trust they place in me, and remain extremely motivated to maintain these relationships as I continue my work with NAI in 2020.

2019.11.07 コーディネーターA.N


ISO17100は、スイスのジュネーブに本部がある国際標準化機構(International Organization for Standardization:ISO)が規定した翻訳サービスに関する国際基準です。翻訳の品質確保のため、ISO17100は翻訳者や社内での原稿の取り扱い方法について規定しています。




2019.10.1 NAI 翻訳者

General principles for writing titles

In English writing, titles are written following the capitalization rules “Title Case” or “Sentence Case”.

Title Case (AKA, headline style)
  • 1. Capitalize the first word of the title/heading and of any subtitle/subheading;
  • 2. Capitalize all “major” words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns) in the title/heading, including the second part of hyphenated major words (e.g., Self-Report not Self-report); and
  • 3. Capitalize all words of four letters or more.
  • *Use lowercase only for “minor” words of three letters or fewer, namely, for conjunctions (words like and, or, nor, and but), articles (the words a, an, and the), and prepositions (words like as, at, by, for, in, of, on, per, and to), as long as they aren’t the first word in a title or subtitle.
Sentence Case
  • 1. Capitalize the first word of the title/heading and of any subtitle/subheading
  • 2. Capitalize any proper nouns and certain other types of words
  • *Use lowercase for everything else.

In scientific journal articles, excessive use and misuse of upper case have often been criticized. Many style-guides have detailed explanation of capitalization rules. There is no certain rule that meet the requirements of all of these styles. For example, some styles do not have a specific capitalization rule, indicating that the capitalization should depend on personal preference based on its meaning, emphasis, structure, length, etc. In addition, a different rule applies when the title is shown in the text or in the reference. In general, as for reference, you may unify the style following the rule used in the journal you are submitting; otherwise, respect the capitalization rule used in the referenced article.

Publication Manual of the APA 6th ed.
New Hart’s Rules: The Oxford Style Guide 2nd Ed.
The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Ed.


英語のタイトルを書く時、通常はタイトルケース(title case)、もしくはセンテンスケース(sentence case)のキャピタライゼーションルールに従って表記されます。

タイトルケース (もしくは、ヘッドラインスタイル)
  • 1. タイトルや見出し、及びサブタイトルや小見出しの最初の単語。
  • 2. タイトルや見出しにおける、主要な単語(名詞、動詞、形容詞、副詞、代名詞)。ハイフンで繋がれる次の語が主要な単語である場合 (e.g., Self-Report not Self-report)も含める。
  • 3. 四文字以上で構成される単語全て。
  • *タイトルやサブタイトルの最初の単語でない限り、3文字以下で構成される主要でない単語、即ち、接続詞(and, or, nor, butなど)、冠詞(a, an, the)、そして前置詞(as, at, by, for, in, of, on, per, to等)には、小文字を使用する。
  • 1. タイトルや見出し、及びサブタイトルや小見出しの最初の単語。
  • 2. 固有名詞や、特定の単語
  • *その他の単語には小文字を使用する。


Publication Manual of the APA 6th ed.
New Hart’s Rules: The Oxford Style Guide 2nd Ed.
The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Ed.

2019.9.2 Editor: M.R.

Correct usage of punctuation: Conventions and guidelines-Part 2.

2) Introductory comma: A comma should preferably be inserted after introductory words and phrases.
Explanation: Introductory words or phrases introduce or set context for the sentence that it precedes. For example, in the sentence “However, the boy did not cry,” “however” is an introductory word. In academic writing, it is preferable to use a comma after such words and phrases to separate them from the rest of the sentence.

3) Series comma: Insert a comma before the conjunction that precedes the last element of a series (e.g., bread, eggs, and milk).
Explanation: In American English, a comma is inserted before the conjunction that precedes the last element of a series (e.g., bread, eggs, and milk). This comma is called the series comma and is inserted for clarity.
Although this comma is not commonly used in British English, its usage is gaining acceptance. In British English, it is called the Oxford comma. As this comma aids clarity, its use is encouraged in academic writing in both American and British English.

4) Colon and semi-colon: A colon and semicolon serve different purposes and cannot be used interchangeably.
Explanation: One of the purposes of a semicolon (;) is to indicate that two independent clauses (clauses that can function as complete sentences) are related (e.g., The children played in the rain; hence, they caught a cold). A colon, on the other hand, is used to draw attention to the text that follows (e.g., The course includes the following subjects: Art, History, and Music). Since they serve different purposes, one cannot be used in place of the other.


2) 導入コンマ:導入的な語句の後には、コンマを挿入することが望ましいです。
例:前置きとなる導入的な単語またはフレーズは、先行する文の背景を紹介または設定します。たとえば、"However, the boy did not cry."という文章では、"however"は導入的な単語です。アカデミックライティングでは、このような単語やフレーズの後にコンマを使用して、文のほかの部分と分離することをお勧めします。

3) 連続コンマ:連続の最後の要素(例:bread, eggs, and milk)に先立つ接続詞の前にコンマを挿入します。
例:アメリカ英語では、コンマは連続の最後の要素(例:bread, eggs, and milk)に先立つ接続詞の前に挿入されます。このコンマは連続コンマと呼ばれ、明確にするために挿入されます。

4) コロンとセミコロン:コロンとセミコロンは役割が異なるため、互いに置き換えて使用することはできません。
例:セミコロン(;)の役割の1つは、2つの独立した節(完全な文として機能できる節)が関連していることを示すことです(例:The children played in the rain; hence, they caught a cold.(子供たちは雨の中で遊んだ。そのため、彼らは風邪をひいた。))。一方、コロン(:)は、その後に続く文章に注意を引くために使用します(例:The course includes the following subjects: Art, History, and Music.(コースには以下の科目、すなわち美術、歴史、音楽が含まれます。))。役割が異なるため、一方を他方の代わりに使用することはできません。

2019.8.5 Editor: M.R.

Correct usage of punctuation: Conventions and guidelines-Part 1.

Japan is a global leader in cutting-edge research. From my nine years of experience as a scientific editor, I have concluded that the following are the primary focus areas for Japanese authors in terms of improving their punctuation usage in written English.

1) Hyphens, En Dashes, and Em Dashes

The hyphen, the en dash, and the em dash are all horizontal marks of varying lengths. Each has a different function from the other. The definitions of each and explanations for when to use them are provided below.

  • a. The Hyphen

    The hyphen is the shortest of the three and is used most commonly to create compound words and hyphenated adjectives (making compounds such as “well-being” and “advanced-level,” for example).

    b. The En dash

    The en dash is slightly longer than the hyphen but not as long as the em dash. (It is, in fact, the width of a typesetter’s letter “N,” whereas the em dash is the width of the letter “M”—thus their names.) The en dash means, quite simply, “through.” We use it most commonly to indicate inclusive dates and numbers: July 9–August 17; pp. 37–59.

    (i) A range of values is denoted by an en dash (–) and not by a hyphen (-).
    "The participants were 20–50 years old."

    (ii) Terms created by joining the names of two persons are separated by an en dash (not a hyphen).
    "Kullback–Leibler divergence is the expected log-likelihood ratio."

    c. The Em Dash

    The em dash is significantly longer than the hyphen.

    We use the em dash to create a strong break in the structure of a sentence.Dashes can be used in pairs like parentheses—that is, to enclose a word, or a phrase, or a clause (as we’ve done here)—or they can be used alone to detach one end of a sentence from the main body.

    Dashes are particularly useful in a sentence that is long and complex or in one that contains a number of commas, as in this example:

    •We bought pencils, rulers, notebook paper, pens, and folders—all of which were on sale, of course—for our clients to use in the courtroom.

When we confuse the em dash with the hyphen, we make a sentence virtually impossible to read. If we had used a hyphen in place of each dash in the sentence above (highlighted in yellow), it would seem as though we had hyphenated two pairs of words in the sentence: “parentheses-that” and “clause-or,” neither of which makes any sense.

Note:For a hyphen, one simply types the "minus" key. In MS Word, an en dash can be obtained from theSymbol list under the Insert menu. In LaTeX code, an en dash is rendered by two successive hyphens. The shortcut for an em dash is Ctrl + Alt + minus key (on the Num pad). Please note that this shortcut works only in MS Word.



1) ハイフン、enダッシュ、emダッシュ


  • a. ハイフン

    ハイフンは上記の3つの中で一番短く、複合語やハイフン付きの形容詞を作成する場合(たとえば、“well-being”(幸福)や “advanced-level”(上級レベル)などの複合語を作る場合)などに最も多く使用されます。

    b. enダッシュ

    enダッシュはハイフンより少し長いですが、emダッシュほど長くありません。(実際、enダッシュは植字機の「N」の文字の幅ですが、emダッシュは文字「M」の幅です。それが名前の由来です。)enダッシュは、非常に単純に「through」を意味します。一番多く使う例では、"July 9–August 17" や "pp. 37–59"のように、日付や数値を包括的に示すために使用します。

    "The participants were 20–50 years old.”

    “Kullback–Leibler divergence is the expected log-likelihood ratio.”

    c. emダッシュ


    Dashes can be used in pairs like parentheses—that is, to enclose a word, or a phrase, or a clause (as we’ve done here)—or they can be used alone to detach one end of a sentence from the main body.


    •We bought pencils, rulers, notebook paper, pens, and folders—all of which were on sale, of course—for our clients to use in the courtroom


注意:ハイフンの場合、単に「マイナス」キーを使って入力します。MS Wordでは、[挿入]メニューの[シンボル]リストからemダッシュを入力できます。LaTeXコードでは、ハイフンを2つ連続して入力すると、emダッシュにレンダリングされます。emダッシュのショートカットは、Ctrl + Alt +マイナスキー(Numパッド上)です。 このショートカットはMS Wordでのみで使える機能ですので、注意してください。

2019.7.10 コーディネーターA.N の独り言

先日、東京ビッグサイトで行われた「第1回 ファーマラボEXPO - 医薬品 研究開発展 -」へ行って参りました。

私たちコーディネーターは、時間ができた時には、可能な限りこのようなイベントに参加するようにしております。 大学の先生方から校閲について、直接ご意見をいただく大変貴重な機会だからです。







校閲者の指名につきまして、ご質問等ございましたら、ぜひコーディネーター にご相談ください。

2019.6.3 Editor: G.M.

Australian editors conference-2

I was on the organizing committee for the recent 9th IPEd national editors conference in Melbourne, Australia. Topics of interest to scientific editors and academic authors: A billion-dollar academic publishing industry where many publishers charge researchers to publish in their journals has led to so-called “predatory publishers”. Such publishers are unethical, and offer low-quality journals with reduced editorial services and academic scrutiny in an effort to elicit money from researchers. Another area of concern is plagiarism in response to the pressure to publish as well as a lack of fluency in the target language. In my experience, many authors do not realize that self-plagiarism, whereby content (typically from the Methods section) is re-used for multiple journal submissions, is discouraged by journals. Other topics included grant editing and the science behind why we make typographical errors. All in all, the conference was a great success.

オーストラリアのメルボルンで先頃行われた、第9回IPEd(Institute of Professional Editors)全国カンファレンスの組織委員を務めました。科学編集者や学術論文執筆者の関心を引く話題としては、次のものがありました。10億ドル規模の学術出版業界において、多くの出版社がジャーナルへの論文掲載料を研究者に課しており、これがいわゆる「ハゲタカ出版社(predatory publisher)」の出現につながっています。こうした出版社は非倫理的で、研究者からお金を取ることを目的に、編集や学術審査の質が低い粗悪なジャーナルを発行するのです。一方、論文発表のプレッシャーと目標言語に堪能でないことからくる剽窃も関心事の一つです。私の経験では、自己剽窃、つまり論文(典型的には「方法」)の内容を再利用した重複投稿が、ジャーナルの禁止事項であると認識していない著者は少なくありません。以上のほか、助成金申請書の編集や、タイプミスの科学などの話題もありました。全体としてカンファレンスは大成功を収めました。

2019.5.7 コーディネーターA.N の独り言





2019.4.2 Editor: G.M.

Australian editors conference

The Australian Institute of Professional Editors will be holding their biennial conference on 8~10 May 2019 in Melbourne, a UNESCO-designated City of Literature and home to 5 million people. Hundreds of editors and other publishing professionals from across Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, and other countries will discuss the latest trends in editing and the roles of editors in the publishing process. Workshops will be held on creating macros in Word, publication ethics and plagiarism, and legal issues for professional editors. For topics of particular interest to scientific editors, these will include scientific and technical academic editing, predatory academic publishing, and making research public-facing using multiple formats, languages, and new writing techniques. Please see https://iped2019.org.au

2019.3.5 Editor: G.S.

Similarities and differences between scientific abstracts for journals and conferences: An example

In last month’s column, we mentioned that abstracts aimed for journal publications tend to be more detailed, whereas those intended for meetings (i.e., posters) are more concise and contain simpler language. Below we provide an example to illustrate differences between the two types of abstracts:


Journal:The expression of the X gene has been implicated in the development of resistance in leukemia. Studies on hepatoma cell lines have shown that activation of the X gene involves the transcription factors TF1 and TF2. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevance of this model in leukemia.

Meeting:The X gene is implicated in the development of resistance in leukemia. We investigated the role of transcription factors TF1 and TF2 in the activation of the X gene in leukemic cell lines.


Journal:Human leukemic cell lines (LE1 and LE2) were subjected to deprivation conditions mimicking the effects of treatment for 12 hours. The treatment included growth in medium lacking the nutrients A and B. Subsequently, we determined the mRNA and protein levels of TF1 and TF2 using real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting.

Meeting:LE1 and LE2 cells were cultured in medium for 12 hours under nutritional deprivation (i.e., lacking A and B). Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of TF1 and TF2.


Journal:After 12 hours of nutritional deprivation, LE1 cells exhibited only minor increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factors TF1 and TF2 compared with baseline. Similarly, in LE2 cells, the observed increases in the mRNA and protein levels of TF1 and TF2 after 12 hours of nutritional deprivation were not significant.

Meeting:In both cell lines, the mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factors TF1 and TF2 did not change significantly after 12 hours of nutritional deprivation.


Journal:This evidence suggests that TF1 and TF2 are not involved in the activation of the X gene in leukemia following nutritional deprivation. These results suggest the involvement of additional factors in the development of resistance in leukemia.

Meeting:TF1 and TF2 are not involved in the activation of the X gene in leukemia following nutritional deprivation. Additional factors may be involved in the development of resistance in leukemia.

2019.2.1 Editor: G.S.

Production of scientific abstracts for journals and conferences: Similarities and differences

The use of scientific abstracts is an effective tool for the communication of the latest developments in research. However, producing an attractive summary of our investigations can be a challenging task and influences the way our discoveries are received by the scientific community. The length, style, and format of abstracts varies depending on their purpose, i.e., accompanying the submission of articles to journals, introducing speeches at upcoming conferences, or supporting poster presentations. However, the common goal is to engage the attention of experts by conveying research findings in a clear and concise manner.

In general, abstracts of journal publications tend to be more detailed, mirroring the content included in the article. In contrast, abstracts intended for meetings contain simpler language, aiming to capture the interest of conference delegates who are able to attend only a limited number of sessions.

Basic guidelines for the production of abstracts:

・Introduction: State the objective of your study. If possible, include a background sentence to assist the reader in understanding the hypothesis.

・Methodology: Provide the study design and experimental approach. Avoid excessive detail (e.g., reagents, equipment, etc.).

・Results: Describe the most important findings. Be factual and provide precise data of measurements. If applicable, support these data with evidence of statistical analyses. However, avoid excessive detail ? especially in abstracts for meetings ? as this may dilute the focus of the abstract.

・Conclusions: Avoid repetition from previous sections. What should the reader remember after reading your abstract?









2019.1.4 Editor: E.L.

Greetings and good wishes for a happy and productive 2019!

January is the time of year when we make resolutions and adopt fresh approaches to various areas of our life, including work. For scientists, our work involves not only experimentation, but also communication of the findings in a logical and clear format.

Like any good story, a scientific article should have a beginning, where the background work is concisely summarized and the aim or scope of the study is outlined; a middle, where the results of the experiments are clearly described; and an end, where the wider context and future directions of the work are discussed.

We learn these fundamental rules in school, and most of us apply them without even thinking. Nevertheless, this basic article structure is essential for any non-specialist readers who are interested in your work. So let’s make this January a time to revisit the principles of article writing and to communicate our scientific discoveries in an interesting and accessible way!

校閲者・コーディネーターの月替わりのコラム(2019) トップ




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